archwire

A wire engaged in orthodontic attachments, affixed to the crowns of two or more teeth and capable of causing or guiding tooth movement.

band (orthodontic)

A thin metal ring, usually stainless steel, which serves to secure orthodontic attachments to a tooth. The band, with orthodontic attachments welded or soldered to it, is closely adapted to fit the contours of the tooth and then cemented into place.

bracket

An orthodontic attachment that is secured to a tooth (either by bonding or banding) for the purpose of engaging an archwire. Brackets can be fabricated from metal, ceramic or plastic.

ceramic brackets

Crystalline, alumina, tooth-shade or clear synthetic sapphire brackets that are aesthetically more attractive than conventional metal attachments.

crowding

Dental malalignment caused by inadequate space for the teeth.

debanding

The removal of cemented orthodontic bands.

elastics (rubber bands)

Used to move teeth in prescribed direction (commonly connected to molar band and upper ball hook). Found in numerous colors for better appearance.

gingiva

The tissue that surrounds the teeth, consisting of a fibrous tissue that is continuous with the periodontal ligament and mucosal covering.

headgear

Generic term for extraoral traction (attached around the back side of the head) for growth modification, tooth movement and anchorage.

Herbst appliance

Fixed or removable appliance designed commonly for overbite problems and more.

imaging

The process of acquiring representations of structures in either two or three dimensions.

lingual

Of or pertaining to the tongue. A term used to describe surfaces and directions toward the tongue.

lingual appliances

Orthodontic appliances fixed to the lingual surface of the teeth.

maxillary

Of or pertaining to the upper jaw. May be used to describe teeth, dental restorations, orthodontic appliances or facial structures.

orthodontist

A dental specialist who has completed an advanced post-doctoral course, accredited by the American Dental Association, of at least two academic years in the special area of orthodontics.

orthognathic surgery

Surgery to alter relationships of teeth and/or supporting bones, usually accomplished in conjunction with orthodontic therapy.

overbite

Vertical overlapping of upper teeth over lower teeth, usually measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane.

radiograph

A permanent image, typically on film, produced by ionizing radiation. Sometimes called an X-ray after the most common source of image-producing radiation.

retainer

Any orthodontic appliance, fixed or removable, used to maintain the position of the teeth following corrective treatment.

retention

The passive treatment period following active orthodontic correction during which retaining appliances may be used.

straight wire appliance

A variation of the edgewise appliance in which brackets are angulated to minimize multiple archwire bends. Brackets and molar tubes have specific orientation in three planes of space.

Dental Terms

Abscess
An infection caused by severe tooth decay, trauma or gum disease.

Amalgam
A silver and mercury material used for fillings.

Anesthetic
A drug used by your doctor to eliminate a patient’s localized pain during certain dental procedures.

Anterior
The teeth in the front of your mouth.

Antiseptic
An agent that can be applied to living tissues to destroy germs.

Apex
The very tip of the root of a tooth.

Aspirator
A suction device your dentist uses to remove saliva from your mouth.

Bleaching Agent
A gel used to whiten and brighten teeth.

Bonding
A plastic composite painted on the teeth to correct stains or damage.

Bridge
One or more artificial teeth attached to your adjacent teeth.

Bruxism
The clenching or grinding of teeth, most commonly while sleeping.

Calculus
The hardened plaque that can form on neglected or prone teeth, commonly known as tartar.

Canine
The pointy teeth just behind the laterals.

Caries
Another name for cavities or decayed teeth.

Cavity
A tiny hole in the tooth caused by decay.

Central
The two upper and two lower teeth in the center of the mouth.

Crown
An artificial tooth or cover made of porcelain or metal.

Cuspid
The pointy teeth just behind the laterals, also known as canines.

Decalcification
The loss of calcium from the teeth.

Deciduous Teeth
Also called “baby teeth.”

Dental Implants
An implant permanently attached to the jawbone that replaces a missing tooth or teeth.

Denture
A removable set of artificial teeth.

Enamel
The hard surface of the tooth above the gum line.

Endodontist
A dentist who specializes in root canals and the treatment of diseases and infections of the dental pulp (inner tooth).

Extraction
The removal of a tooth or teeth.

Filling
A plug made of metal or composite material used to fill a tooth cavity.

Fluoride
A chemical solution used to harden teeth and prevent decay.

Gingivitis
Inflammation of gums around the roots of the teeth.

Gums
The firm flesh that surrounds the roots of the teeth.

Impacted Tooth
Often occurring with wisdom teeth, it is a tooth that sits sideways below the gum line, often requiring extraction.

Incisal
Related to incisors (see below).

Incisor
One of the flat, sharp-edged teeth in the front of the mouth.

Inlays
A custom-made filling cemented into an unhealthy tooth.

Instant Orthodontics
Alternative to braces using bonded porcelain veneers or crowns.

Lateral
These are the teeth adjacent to the centrals.

Night Guard
A plastic mouthpiece worn at night to prevent grinding of the teeth. Often used to treat TMJ.

Pedontist
Also known as a pediatric dentist, a dentist that specializes in the treatment of children’s teeth.

Periodontist
A dentist specializing in the treatment of gum disease.

Plaque
A sticky buildup of acids and bacteria that causes tooth decay.

Posterior Teeth
The teeth in the back of the mouth.

Primary Teeth
Also known as “baby teeth” or deciduous teeth.

Prosthodontist
A dentist specializing in the restoration and replacement of missing teeth or severely damaged teeth.

Root
The portion of the tooth below your gum line.

Root Canal
Cleaning out and filling the inside nerve of a tooth that is heavily decayed.

Sealant
Plastic coating applied to teeth to prevent decay. Used most commonly for children.

Secondary Teeth
The permanent teeth.

Six-Year Molar
Commonly known as “the first molar.”

Sleep Apnea
A potentially serious disorder in which a sleeping person may stop breathing for 10 seconds or more, often continuously throughout the night.

Tartar
See calculus.

TMJ Syndrome
A disorder associated with the joint of the jaw. Often caused by a misalignment of or a disparity in upper and lower jaw sizes.

Tooth Whitening
A process designed to whiten and brighten teeth.

Twelve-Year Molar
Commonly known as “the second molar.”

Veneer
A plastic, porcelain or composite material used to improve the attractiveness of a stained or damaged tooth.

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